- Interesting Facts/Life101
- Speed of light: 299792458 meters per second
#8 minutes 12 seconds to travel from the Sun to the Earth
- Speed of Earth around the Sun: 30km/s ~110km/h
- Things that 'matter' - THE 7 States of Matter
- Bose-Einstein Condensate
- Quark-Gluon Plasma
- Neutron-Degenerate Matter
- Atoms in the (known) Universe:
It is estimated that the there are between 10^78 to 10^82 atoms in the known, observable universe. In layman's terms, that works out to between ten quadrillion vigintillion and one-hundred thousand quadrillion vigintillion atoms.
Just one cm^3 aluminum cube (has a density of 2.70 g/cm3) contains so many atoms, that if you'd fold them next to each-other side by side, the path would be 192 000 km long; to better interpret how long that distance is - this means that if you'd be traveling at 100km/h speed on that tine track, would take you about 22 000 years!
Are all points in the universe connected?
All points in the observable universe are "connected" in the sense that they can be acted upon by forces that have an infinite range (gravity and electromagnetism).
However, points that are outside of our cosmological horizon (due to the expansion of the universe) are no longer causally connected with points in our local vicinity, since they are receding from us faster than light. The same is true of points that are inside the event horizon of a black hole.
- Bar (atmospheric pressure):
Standard atmospheric pressure (atm) Pressure measures force per unit area, with SI units of Pascals (1 pascal = 1 newton per square metre, 1 N/m2). On average, a column of air with a cross-sectional area of 1 square centimetre (cm2), measured from mean (average) sea level to the top of Earth's atmosphere, has a mass of about 1.03 kilogram and exerts a force or "weight" of about 10.1 newtons, resulting in a pressure of 10.1 N/cm2 or 101 kN/m2 (101 kilopascals, kPa).
- The average human reaction time, is on the order of a quarter of a second (250 milliseconds) - how about yours?:
- Change in EEG signals that Libet called "readiness potential" - for an average of half a second (500ms) before the participants were aware of the decision to move.
- "modern desktop computers have central processing unit (the "brain" of a computer) clock speeds of over three gigahertz; they are roughly 750,000,000 times faster than we are."
- Communication is only 7 percent verbal and 93 percent non-verbal.
The non-verbal component was made up of body language (55 percent) and tone of voice (38 percent).
Facts about body:
Cell is the smallest and the basic unit of life.
How many times can a human cell divide?:
- Normal cells fall in the range of 50-70 times, based on the length of telomeres associated with DNA. Telomeres get shorter after each division up until a critical length.
- Cancer cells can divide indefinitely since they use an enzyme called telomerase to maintain the telemere length.
Between birth and death, the human body goes from having 300 bones, to just 206.
Astronauts can grow up to two inches taller in space.
You are taller in the morning than you are at night.
Brain without oxygen:
- Between 30-180 seconds of oxygen deprivation, you may lose consciousness.
- At the one-minute mark, brain cells begin dying.
- At three minutes, neurons suffer more extensive damage, and lasting brain damage becomes more likely.
- At five minutes, death becomes imminent.
- At 10 minutes, even if the brain remains alive, a coma and lasting brain damage are almost inevitable.
- At 15 minutes, survival becomes nearly impossible.
In cases of extreme starvation, the brain will begin to eat itself.
The brain makes up 2% of a person's weight. Despite this, even at rest, the brain consumes 20% of the body's energy. The brain consumes energy at 10 times the rate of the rest of the body per gram of tissue. The average power consumption of a typical adult is 100 Watts and the brain consumes 20% of this making the power of the brain 20 W (/hour).
While awake, your brain produces enough electricity to light a lightbulb.
Body's largest and fastest-growing organ is the skin.
The sense of smell gets bored easily. When entering a bakery or florist you are very aware of the aroma but by the time you reach the check-out you will no longer be able to smell the different aromas around you.
You can smell as fresh as a daisy every month and your scent cells are
renewed every 28 days, so every four weeks you get a new "nose".
The human brain can process roughly 10,000 smells in an area the size of a postage stamp, each triggering a neural response.
Your sense of smell accounts for 75-95% of the impact a flavour has. Without being able to smell the difference between onion and potato, it'd be difficult to tell them apart.
You can't breathe and swallow at the same time.
Every organ you have two of, you only need one of to survive.
Arteries are blood vessels carrying blood towards an organ.
Veins are blood vessels carrying blood away from an organ.
Men's testicles hang below their bodies because sperm dies at body temperature.
A single sperm contains 37.5 MB worth of data;
- that is equivalent to data of a volume of 9 bibles (of 4.13MB size)
- or about 900,000 words
Babies only blink once or twice a minute, while adults average 10 times a minute.
Cornflakes have more genes than people do.
There are five types of blood group: A; B; AB; 0; Bombay.
We spend about one-third of our life either sleeping or attempting to do so.
Why do we sleep? TLDR: detoxification wile within the 'realm' of unconsciousness.
Length of Circadian Cycle in Humans is about 24 hours and 11 minutes ± 16 minutes.
World record for going without sleep was set by Randy Gardner - stayed awake for 11 days and 25 minutes (264.4 hours.)
The Stages of Sleep
- Stage 1 - Short, person is easily awakened
- Stage 2 - Preparation stage when body activity decreases, body temperature decreases
- Stage 3 - Brain waves slow, occasional faster brain waves
- Stage 4 - Faster brain waves stop, only slower (delta) waves
- Stage 5 - REM - when most dreaming occurs
newborns: 14-17 hours
infants: 12-16 hours
toddlers: 11-14 hours
preschool-age children: 10-13 hours
school-age children: 9-12 hours
teens: 8-10 hours
adults: 7-9 hours
When less is more: Some previous research has shown there are benefits to getting extra sleep on weekends to make up for fewer hours during the week, but in the long run, it's best to stick to a routine."
Senses during sleep:
The sense of touch is still quite active, because a person can be awakened by something as simple as a hand on the arm, for example. Of course, each individual is different, with a range of susceptibility to touch while sleeping. In fact, most people will be rather easily awakened by touch in the early stages of sleep, and will be much more difficult to awaken when they enter the fourth and fifth stages.
Hearing seems to be another of the five senses that remains active during sleep, though studies have shown there is a significant decrease in sensitivity in some people. There are some people who could sleep in a boiler factory, for instance. The stage of sleep that an individual is in will generally make a difference with hearing as well
It's All in the MindIn essence, the study proves that if you believe you're well-rested, your brain will perform better - regardless of your actual sleep quality. In the same vein, if you're constantly harping on how tired you are, you're perpetuating that reality for yourself.
[How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed (page 76)] -Ray Kurzweil
- ...in dreams, however, these taboos are relaxed, and we will often dream about matters that are culturally, sexually, or professionally forbidden. It is as if our brain realizes that we are not an actual actor in the world while dreaming. Freud wrote about this phenomenon but also noted that we will disguise such dangerous thoughts, at least when we attempt to recall them, so that the awake brain continues to be protected from them.
- Relaxing professional taboos turns out to be useful for creative problem solving. I use a mental technique each night in which I think about a particular problem before I go to sleep. This triggers sequences of thoughts that will continue into my dreams. Once I am dreaming, I can think-dream about solutions to the problem without the burden of the professional restraints I carry during the day. I can then access these dream thoughts in the morning while in an in-between state of dreaming and being awake, sometimes referred to as "lucid dreaming."
- On waking up, don't open your eyes, don't move, don't say a thing - any sensory perception or movement tends to wipe out memories of a dream. "If you roll over and say to your spouse that you just had the coolest dream, you're going to lose it," Stickgold says. "Stay half-asleep and replay what you remember in your mind. As you replay it while awake, it gets stored differently, and now you've got it. A whole other chunk might even pop into your mind." Lie there for a few minutes to sink back into the dream, to gather more and more detail. For two weeks, tell yourself to remember your dreams every night and morning. After such a regimen, Stickgold says, "I would predict that 80 percent of people who initially said they never dream would say they do now."
- make sure no light or noise will disturb you
(no blue-light [tv/phone/...] before going sleep; instead use red/warm light if light is needed)
- use ~18 °C temperature room
- breath slowly & deeply
- lie on your back to remove tension from your head; shoulders, legs...
- imagine yourself in a canoe on a big lake under the blue/dark sky
- *don't think; don't think; don't think*
Brain & Learning
Lifelong learning is a continuous process it requires self motivation which comes within .One should be need to feel positive about learning and about their ability to learn. If one can think it in a positive aspect the struggle of learning becomes easy for upcoming challenges. They will also be able to do well, as well as be well trained. As we say
"Sharpen your axe before you try to cut down a tree
Learning is always a blessing it can never be a curse"
The Seven Learning Styles
- Visual (spatial):You prefer using pictures, images, and spatial understanding.
- Aural (auditory-musical): You prefer using sound and music.
- Verbal (linguistic): You prefer using words, both in speech and writing.
- Physical (kinesthetic): You prefer using your body, hands and sense of touch.
- Logical (mathematical): You prefer using logic, reasoning and systems.
- Social (interpersonal): You prefer to learn in groups or with other people.
- Solitary (intrapersonal): You prefer to work alone and use self-study.
Cortical Map Reorganization Enabled by Nucleus Basalis Activity #good news for adults
"Memories do change over time" #Zimbardo - Time Paradox (page 79)
"This reconstructive nature of the past means that how we think and feel today influences how we remember yesterday."
#good ending reframes the whole story to look good even if it was not....
The Brain That Changes Itself - Chapter#9
Mr. L and his dead mother; rumination of memories 'when it's safe' to process them.
Repressed memories: study of Elizabeth Loftus proved that we can 'remember' false memories. (page 81-)
False repressed memories:
It is imperative that those working in the legal system are familiar, at least in general terms, with the way that memory works. Experimental psychologists, following the initial controversy over the veracity of recovered memories back in the 1980s, have developed several reliable techniques to study factors that influence the formation and maintenance of false memories. The studies have proved beyond doubt that false memories can be produced quite readily in susceptible individuals.
Implanting false memories (page 83)
"The famous saying above from Orwell's novel 1984 is typically understood in the context of societal and governmental control. The segment of society that controls the present can rewrite the past and thereby control the future. The main character in 1984, Winston is employed in the Ministry of Truth, where he actively rewrites history as propaganda destined to appear in textbooks."
Ray - How to create Mind (page 172)
How would you test the conjecture that they are both conscious? One could assess them for neurological correlates of consciousness, which is precisely what Gazzaniga has done. His experiments show that each hemisphere is acting as an independent brain. Confabulation is not restricted to brain hemispheres; we each do it on a regular basis. Each hemisphere is about as intelligent as a human, so if we believe that a human brain is conscious, then we have to conclude that each hemisphere is independently conscious. We can assess the neurological correlates and we can conduct our own thought experiments (for example, considering that if two brain hemispheres without a functioning corpus callosum constitute two separate conscious minds, then the same would have to hold true for two hemispheres with a functioning connection between them), but any attempt at a more direct detection of consciousness in each hemisphere confronts us again with the lack of a scientific test for consciousness. But if we do allow that each hemisphere of the brain is conscious, then do we grant that the so-called unconscious activity in the neocortex (which constitutes the vast bulk of its activity) has an independent consciousness too? Or maybe it has more than one? Indeed, Marvin Minsky refers to the brain as a "society of mind."13 In another split-brain experiment the researchers showed the word "bell" to the right brain and "music" to the left brain. The patient was asked what word he saw. The left-hemisphere-controlled speech center says "music." The subject was then shown a group of pictures and asked to point to a picture most closely related to the word he was just shown. His right-hemisphere-controlled arm pointed to the bell. When he was asked why he pointed to the bell, his left-hemisphere-controlled speech center replied, "Well, music, the last time I heard any music was the bells banging outside here." He provided this explanation even though there were other pictures to choose from that were much more closely related to music. Again, this is a confabulation. The left hemisphere is explaining as if it were its own a decision that it never made and never carried out. It is not doing so to cover up for a friend (that is, its other hemisphere)-it genuinely thinks that the decision was its own.
#12 Rules for life: lobsters grow a new brain if/when defeated.
Regarding memories from childhood:
"Martin Seligman, past president of the American Psychological Association, writes:
I think that the events of childhood are overrated; in fact, I think past history in general is overrated. It has turned out to be difficult to find even small effects of childhood events on adult personality, and there is no evidence at all of large-to say nothing determining-effects.
The major traumas of childhood may have some influence on adult personality, but only a barely detectable one. Bad childhood events, in short, do not mandate adult troubles.
There is no justification in these studies for blaming your adult depression, anxiety, bad marriage, drug use, sexual problems, unemployment, aggression against your children, alcoholism, or anger on what happened to you as a child."
#however when you are sick as a child it does affect how your brain develops, as it takes away resources that needs to be focused elsewhere.
Ideas & creativity
When looking for good ideas start from the opposite side of the spectrum, and rather think about what is 'it' now, what is wrong with it & how could you make it better.
Try asking questions that haven't been asked yet.
5x "Why" to find the root cause/true value and benefit.
Do postmortems after project/work eta is over; note down at least 3-3 things that worked well, and that did not.
The quantity of truly original ideas is very low; it is much easier to improve on somebody else's idea than to build something from scratch; to be original you don't have to be first; just have to be different and better!
However to succeed in business your solution needs to be at least an order of magnitude (10x) to survive & possibly transcend to a monopoly. That is what start-ups do..; and if you can't beat a rival, it may be better to merge. (if regulations allow)
People with a fixed mindset believe their basic qualities (their intelligence or talent) are fixed traits. They see themselves as 'talented' or not. As a consequence, they believe they cannot develop their talents. They also believe that talent alone creates success and does not require effort. Needless to say, they're wrong.
People with a growth mindset believe their basic abilities can be developed through practice. To them, brains and talent are just the starting point. This view creates a drive to learn and develops resilience to setbacks that is essential for great accomplishment. It is important to remember that a growth mindset can be taught.
Studies have shown that attention significantly affects memory during the encoding phase, but hardly at all during recall.
Thus, distractions or divided attention during initial learning may severely impair subsequent retrieval success, whereas distractions at the time of recall may slow down the process a little, but has little to no effect on its accuracy. -ref
Backward sequence needs to be (re)learned as a new series - this suggests that our memories are sequential and in order.
They can be accessed in the order that they are remembered. We are unable to directly reverse the sequence of a memory.
#Try spelling the alphabet in reverse order
You learn by making associations and new connections for the 'same' object.
"It may seem inefficient to have such similar questions, but it helps build fluency with the material when you have the "same" information encoded into memory in multiple ways, triggering off different associations. And so many of the questions below have this nature, elaborating ideas in multiple ways." -ref
Learning with the least effort - most optimally #Spaced Repetition & Anki (Appendix1)
Research shows that within just one hour, if nothing is done with new information, most people will have forgotten about 50% of what they learned.
- Dedicate 50% of your time to learning anything new and the rest of your time to sharing or explaining what you have learned to someone or your audience.
- Explaining a concept to someone else is the best way to learn it yourself. The 50/50 rule is a better way to learn, process, retain, and remember information.
How new ideas get spread
How to promote ideas (from end-user perspective):
[ WHY ] -> [ HOW ] -> [ WHAT ]
-WHY the solution is innovative/needed/makes difference (?)
-HOW do you achieve it (?)
-WHAT is the end result/feeling/benefit/product (?)
Power of thoughts
The control group, who didn't do anything, saw no gains in strength. The exercise group, who trained three times a week, saw a 28% gain in strength. No big surprises there. But, the group who did not exercise, but rather thought about exercising experienced nearly the same gains in strength as the exercise group (24%). Yes, you read that right!
Is excepted to be about 82 years in average in developed countries.
World Population = ~ 7.7 billion
Raising "good" kids:
Leave better future generation behind not just a cleaner planet!
If we don't make the investment now, they'll pay a high price later.
In my nursery school there was a nice story depicted on the wall about a butterfly in its third stage (when the Larve has yet to fight its way out from the protecting chrysalis's seals);
saying that if you help that little 'worm' to release,
then it won't be strong enough and will never learn to fly ever.
Similar personalities make good friends but bad couples.
Opposites attract each other;
It is good if you are different; but have - or at least can agree - on same goals.
Although when there is an extremely huge gap between the partners in terms of IQ/EQ or wealth... then it can easily go sideways sooner or later; as the significant other who is not so successful may be feeling not worthy and traps themselves in that mindset - ultimately leading to turning against the other one to prove that they actually can have an impact on your life (even/especially pulling you down to their level).
Ideally you two are both better people together than each alone.
Number of programmers double about every five years; resulting in constant 50% with less than five years of experience.
Why 'Waterfall' is not good & the reason it was introduced in the first place:
Less than 1% of data that our World emits is being collected and analyzed
"Deep data is data that's not yet collected and not yet analyzed,"
IBM estimate that roughly 90 % of data generated by sensors and analog-to-digital conversions never get used. (dark data)
Sergey Brin and Larry Page, the founders of Google, had the right idea back in 1995 when they spent their evenings sifting through dumpsters behind Stanford University's computer science building, pulling out disregarded computer parts. They'd bring these random x86-based computer parts back to their dorm room to add to the Frankenstein machine hosting the legendary rogue Web crawler that took down Stanford's entire network-twice.
Today, it is estimated that Google has more than 1 million x86 servers in 12 major data centers and about 20 smaller centers on different continents. That's a pretty big cloud. Two key factors to the system design allowed them to scale the dorm-room beast in 1995, and it still holds true for the million-plus servers in the Google network today. To this day, Google continues to use inexpensive x86 parts instead of the much more expensive enterprise server components found in many corporate data centers. Second, failover, redundancy, monitoring, clustering, and other infrastructure management tasks are handled by a virtualization system that runs beneath the operating system level rather than using separate hardware such as load balancers to handle such tasks.
This process is referred to as resource pooling. Resource pooling by the hypervisor makes virtualization possible, and virtualization makes multi-tenant computing possible
How Machines Learn:
AI (Artificial Intelligence) bias:
Hacking the AI algorithms:
[Did you know?] #Power of Domain
- Registering a domain name for a DNS sinkhole stopped the attack spreading as a worm, because the ransomware only encrypted the computer's files if it was unable to connect to that domain, which all computers infected with WannaCry before the website's registration had been unable to do.
- A guy bought 'Google.com' for a minute
Cellular automata are algorithmic models that use computation to iterate on very simple rules. In so doing, these very simple rules can create complex emergent phenomena through the interaction between agents as they evolve over time.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cellular_automaton#Classification - class iv 4 behavior
#see also: Ray Kurzweil - How to Create a Mind: page 181 - "Thought experiment, Is You 2 conscious?!"...
@11:42 "it turns out the Copenhagen conscious observer approach 180 degrees up-site down instead of consciousness causing collapse, collapse causes consciousness."
#reversible quantum computation:
~ is theoretically faster than linear or brute-force search even without the help of data structures or heuristics.
Wanna know more(?):
Quantum in nutshell:
- A central aspect of consciousness is the ability to look ahead, the capability we call "foresight." It is the ability to plan, and in social terms to outline a scenario of what is likely going to happen, or what might happen, in social interactions that have not yet taken place.... It is a system whereby we improve our chances of doing those things that will represent our own best interests.... I suggest that "free will" is our apparent ability to choose and act upon whichever of those seem most useful or appropriate, and our insistence upon the idea that such choices are our own.
-Richard D. Alexander
- Shall we say that the plant does not know what it is doing merely because it has no eyes, or ears, or brains? If we say that it acts mechanically, and mechanically only, shall we not be forced to admit that sundry other and apparently very deliberate actions are also mechanical? If it seems to us that the plant kills and eats a fly mechanically, may it not seem to the plant that a man must kill and eat a sheep mechanically?
-Samuel Butler, 1871
- Is the brain, which is notably double in structure, a double organ, "seeming parted, but yet a union in partition"?
We often decide based on how we 'feel'; not based on previous knowledge or rationality.
- Bob Leduc: "Customers usually buy on impulse, not logic. They base their buying decision on how they feel about a product or service. Get them excited about using your product or service, and you'll increase your sales."
Should You trust your 'Gut Feelings'?
- Thus, for every situation that involves a decision based on your assessment, consider whether your intuition has correctly assessed the situation. Is it an evolutionary old or new situation? Does it involve cognitive biases? Do you have experience or expertise in this type of situation? If it is evolutionary old, involves a cognitive bias, and you don't have expertise in it, then rely on analytic thinking. If not, feel free to trust your intuitive thinking.
Lucifer effect (p322/p514)
-ref.: 39 D. L. Rosenhan, "On Being Sane in Insane Places," [Science 179 (1973):250-58]
"On Being Sane in Insane Places."
David and seven associates each went through the same scenario of making
an appointment with a different mental hospital admissions officer and com-
plaining of hearing voices or noises, "thuds," but giving no other unusual symp-
toms. Each of them was admitted to their local mental hospital, and as soon as
they were dressed in the patient's pajamas and scuffles, they behaved in a pleas-
ant, apparently normal fashion at all times. The big question was how soon the
staff would catch on, realize they were really sane, and bid them adieu.
The simple answer in every one of the eight cases, in each of the eight men-
tal wards, was Never! If you are in an Insane Place, you must be an Insane Person
because Sane People are not Patients in Insane Asylums-so the situated-identity
reasoning went. To be released took a lot of doing, after several weeks, and only
with help from colleagues and lawyers. Finally, after the suitably sane Eight were
checked out, written across each of their hospital charts was the same final
evaluation: "Patient exhibits schizophrenia in remission." Meaning that, no mat-
ter what, the staff still believed that their madness could erupt again some day-
so don't throw away those hospital scuffles!
--relevant TED video
We like familiar things, and we rationalize why we choose what we unconsciously notice.
#You don't buy make-up ~ you buy appeal...
#You don't buy a car ~ you buy prestige...
Ads build up associations for our deepest desires with constant repetition & the exploitation of emotional impact via fear and love.
Regarding ad-pocalypse & how everybody is suffering from it: #HowGoogleWillCollapse
Neuralink: read and write access to your brain!
- reducing input latency by ~ 3 seconds (vs keyboard)
You forget most of what happened to you before the age of seven:
"Kids can remember events before the age of 3 when they're small, but by the time they're a bit older, those early autobiographical memories are lost. New research has put the starting point for amnesia at age 7."
Between the ages of 0 - 7 are our programming years. During these years, our children will spend most of their time in Alpha and Theta brainwave cycles, which is the same state that a person is in, when they are in hypnosis or meditation. So you may want to imagine your little children walking around in a permanent state of hypnosis, being programmed by the environment, open to suggestion, in a super learning state.
- Young children seem to differ from adults regarding their beliefs about the reality of magic. In one study, 4-6-year-old children were told a story about a box that supposedly transformed pictures into the real objects they represented. Almost all children understood that this sort of box could not exist in reality. However, later on, the researchers presented a box to the children and suggested that it was the same sort of box as in the story. When left alone with the box, the majority of the children tried in some way to use the box to create real objects. When it did not work, they expressed disappointment. Thus, even though they seemed to understand that this sort of box was not possible, they still tried to work magic on it. This research shows that, although children seem to have some skepticism about magic, they are not entirely sure that it does not exist in the real world. . •
Going back 52 generations it is very likely that WE have the same ancestors:
Origins of the Evolution Theory:
The Law of Accelerating Returns (LOAR)
"Acceleration and exponential growth applies to any process in which patterns of information evolve. So we see acceleration in the pace of biological evolution, and similar (but much faster) acceleration in technological evolution, which is itself an outgrowth of biological evolution."
Price's Law & Who's Doing the Work
[S01E09]Dr. Gregory House : [to Dr. Forman] You took a chance, you did something great. You were wrong, but it was still great. You should feel great that it was great. You should feel like crap that it was wrong. That's the difference between him and me. He thinks you do your job, and what will be will be. I think that what I do and what you do matters. He sleeps better at night. He shouldn't.
Curse of Intelligence:
He went to a grammar school at six and graduated just within seven months, and by eight years of age he finished high school. He tried to join Harvard University but, being too young, he was advised to wait a couple of years and finally at 11, he became the youngest student to have ever enrolled at Harvard University. He graduated at the age of 16 and entered Harvard Law School at 18.
By this time he was probably sick and tired of being remarkable and he dropped out before completing his degree. He taught maths at a university for sometime but left that to do something ordinary and tried to become anonymous by being a bookkeeper, a clerk and doing other jobs that were incommensurate with his talents. All the attention he got due to his remarkable mind made him almost a recluse and he died lonely and poor at the young age of 46.
Issues with big companies:
Give someone enough rope to hang himself:
Keep it cool:
The Super Mario Effect:
- Focusing on the Princess and not the pits, to stick with a task and learn more
Issue with following the alpha: group-think
masters of body and mind #Deepdiving
How small things can have devastating impact: